Unstable systems

X-29 aircraft

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 System description

The X-29 was an experimental aircraft that tested a forward-swept wing, canard control surfaces, and other novel aircraft technologies. It was deliberately designed with static instability to increase its manoeuverability and speeds of command response. Considerable effort has been devoted to the design of the flight control system for this airplane (Rogers & Collins, 1992; Clarke et al., 1994; Stein, 2003). One of the design criterion is phase margin should be greater than 45° for all flight conditions.

Mathematical model

At one flight condition the transfer function model si given by:


Simulation files

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Information sources

ROGERS, W.L.; COLLINS, D.J. X-29 H controller synthesis. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 962-967, 1992.

CLARKE, R.; BURKEN, J.J.; BOSWORTH, J.T.; BAUER, J.E. X-29 flight control system—lessons learned. International Journal of Control, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 199-219, 1994.

STEIN, G. Respect the unstableIEEE Control systems magazine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 12-25, 2003.

PADMA SREE, R.; CHIDAMBARAM, M. Control of unstable systems. Oxford: Alpha Science, 2006. ISBN 1-84265-287-7. 

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